Tuesday, October 28, 2014

I-post sa WIKApedia ang Iyong Katanungan tungkol sa Wikang Filipino

May gusto kang malaman sa wika? I-post mo at itanong sa WIKApedia

Ang WIKApedia ay isang proyekto ng pamahalaan ng Pilipinas (gov.ph) at ng Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino na inilunsad nito lamang Setyembre 29, 2014. Ito ay isang Facebook fanpage na kung saan ay maaari kang mag-post ng iyong mga katanungan tungkol sa wikang Filipino.

WIKApedia Facebook FanpageAng WIKApedia ay kalipunan ng mga aralin at paglilinaw hinggil sa wikang Filipino. Tutugon ang pahinang ito sa inyong mga katanungan tungkol sa wika. (Fanpage description)

Marami pang mga aralin ang maaaring matutunan kaya naman i-LIKE na ang WIKApedia sa Facebook!

Gamit ng fanpage ang mga infographics kung saan ay pinapakita at binibigyang linaw ang mga katanugan at mga dapat malaman tungkol sa Wikang Filipino. Narito ang ilang mga halimbawa:

Baybayin, hindi Alibata, ang sinauna at katutubong alpabeto ng Pilipinas.
Sinaunang Baybayin

Hindi totoo ang Alibata. Imbento ito ng isang gurong inakalang mula ito sa Arabe. Hango ito sa unang mga titik ng Arabe: alif + bata = alibata

Bagkus, BAYBAYIN. Ito ang ngalan ng sinauna't katutubong alpabeto ng bansa. Mula ito sa baybay na ang ibig sabihin ay ispeling. Sariling atin ito at hindi natin hiniram.

Ang bagong Alpabetong Filipino (ABCD) ay may 28 na titik.
Marunong ka bang gumamit ng kudlit ( ' ) ?  Gumamit ng kudlit ( ' ) kapag may inaalis na titik (o mga titik) para paikliin ang isang salita (o mga salita).

Marunong ka bang gumamit ng kudlit ( ' ) ?
Gumamit ng kudlit ( ' ) kapag may inaalis na titik (o mga titik) para paikliin ang isang salita (o mga salita).
Nagsisilbi itong pananda na may mga titik na tinanggal.

Ano-ano ba talaga ang mga titik ng Alpabetong Filipino?

Ang lumang Alpabetong Pilipino (ABAKADA) ay may 20 titik at batay lamang sa wikang Tagalog.

Ang bagong Alpabetong Filipino (ABCD) ay may 28 na titik.
F, J, V, at Z: DAhil umiiral ang mga ito sa iba pang wikang katutubo sa bansa tulad ng Ifugao, Badjaw, Ivatan, Zambal Bagobo, Maranaw at iba pa.
C, Ñ, Q, at X: Upang mapadali ang pag-aampon at panghihiram ng mga banyagang salita, lalo na ang mga terminong ginagamit sa agham.

Sa Alpabetong Filipino, naaampon ang banyaga, nayayakap ang katutubong wika.


Filipino ang ngalan ng ating Wikang Pambansa

Ayon sa Artiklulo XIV, Seksyon 6 ng 1987 Konstitusyon:

Ang wikang pambansa ng Pilipinas ay Filipino. Samantalang nalilinang, ito ay dapat payabungin at pagyamanin pa salig sa umiiral na mga wika ng Pilipinas at sa iba pang mga wika.

Alinsunod sa mga tadhana ng batas at sang-ayon sa nararapat na maaaring ipasya ng Kongreso, dapat magsagawa ng hakbangin ang Pamahalaan upang ibonsod at puspusang itaguyod ang paggamit ng Filipino bilang midyum ng opisyal na komunikasyon at bilang wika ng pagtuturo sa sistemang pang-edukasyon.










Monday, October 27, 2014

BAYBAYIN ang Sinauna at Katutubong Alpabeto ng Ating Bansa [Pilipinas]



Hindi raw totoo ang ALIBATA.

Bagkus, BAYBAYIN ang sinauna at katutubong alpabeto ng ating bansa [Pilipinas].
Mula ito sa baybay na ang ibig sabihin ay ispeling. Sariling atin at hindi hiram.

Para sa karagdagang impormasyon, bumisita sa: WIKApedia, ang Facebook fanpage tungkol sa Aralin sa Filipino na hatid ng GOV.PH


Tuesday, August 12, 2014

English: Subject and Verb Agreement

Subject and Verb Agreement

Basic Rule:
A singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb.

Example:
She dances gracefully. (singular)
They dance together. (plural)

Rule 1:
Two singular subjects connected by "or" or "nor" require a singular verb.

Example:
Mom or dad is arriving at 10 in the morning.

Rule 2:
Two singular subjects connected by "either/or" or "neither/nor" require a singular verb.

Example:
Neither Tina nor Anne is available.
Either Tom or Dan is working today.

Rule 3:
If "I" is one of the two subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor,
put it second and follow it with the singular verb am.

Example:
Neither she nor I am going to the party.

Rule 4:
If a singular subject is connected by "or" or "nor" to a plural subject,place the plural subject last and use a plural verb.

Example:
The cook book or the fiction novels go on that shelf.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Rule 5:
If a singular and plural subject are connected by "either/or" or "neither/nor", place the plural subject last and use a plural verb.

Example:
Neither Kim nor the others are allowed to enter the room.

Rule 6:
Use a plural verb with two or more subjects if they are connected by "and".

Example:
The scepter and the crown are symbols of a king.

Rule 7:
If the subject is separated from the verb by words such as "along with," "as well as," "not," or "besides," ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb.

Examples:
Intellect, as well as passion, is the key to his success.
Nina, along with her team, is coming today.

Rule 8:
The pronouns "each, everyone, every one, everybody, anyone, anybody, someone, and somebody" are singular and require singular verbs (regardless of the word the follow).

Examples:
Each of the boys dances well.
Someone from the teens is left-handed.

Rule 9:
With words that indicate portions — percent, fraction, part, majority, some, all, none, remainder, etc — look at the noun in your of phrase (object of the preposition).

If the object of the preposition is singular, use a singular verb.
If the object of the preposition is plural, use a plural verb.

Examples:

Forty percent of the cake was eaten.
Forty percent of the cakes were eaten.

One-half of the city is affected by flood.
One-half of the people are affected by flood.

Rule 10:
The expression "the number" is followed by a singular verb while the expression "a number" is followed by a plural verb.

Examples:
The number of people we need to hire is ten.
A number of people have spoken about this issue.

Rule 11:
If "either" and "neither" are subjects, use singular verbs.

Examples:
Neither of them is guilty.
Either of us is allowed to do the job.

Rule 12:
In sentences beginning with "here" or "there", the subject follows the verb.

Examples:
There are four horses on the farm.
There is a horse on the farm.

Rule 13:
Use a singular verb with "sums of money" or "periods of time".

Examples:
Five thousand pesos is a high price to pay.
Five years is the maximum sentence for that offense.

Rule 14:
Sometimes the pronoun "who", "that", or "which" is the subject of a verb in the middle of the sentence. The pronouns who, that, and which become singular or plural according to the noun directly in front of them.

If that noun is singular, use a singular verb. If it is plural, use a plural verb.

Examples:
Sam is the columnist who writes that famous article.
He is one of the employees who do the job.

Rule 15:
Collective nouns such as "team" and "staff" may be either singular or plural depending on their use in the sentence.

Examples:
The staff is in a meeting.
(Staff is acting as a unit here)

The staff are in disagreement about the findings.
(staff are acting as separate individuals in this example)

Monday, March 3, 2014

Science: Central Nervous System

The Central Nervous System - definition and major parts of the brain.

Central Nervous System – contains the brain and the spinal cord. It serves to connect the sensory and motor fibers within the nervous system thus considered as the "integrating center" for all behavior and bodily functions.

Spinal Cord – is the large rope-like segment of nerve tissue extending down the vertebral column, which is approximately as thick as a person’s little finger. Its principal function is to distribute motor fibers to the effector organs of the body and to collect somato-sensory information to be passed on to the brain. Spinal cord is 2/3 as long as the vertebral column and the rest is spinal roots composed of caudal equina.

Brain – has an average weight of 3 lbs. and contrains at least 15 billion nerve cells called neurons

Major Parts of the Brain 

1. Hindbrain
  • Closest to the spinal cord
  • It performs a series of reflex actions such as blinking of the eye and some processes like breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
Parts of Hindbrain
  1. Medulla Oblongata – or "the bulb," acts as connecting link between the spinal cord and the brain. It plays an important role in automatic activities
  2. Pons – a large bulge in the brain stem that lies above the medulla oblongata. It connects higher and lower levels of the nervous system and is important in sleeping and waking
  3. Cerebellum – is an important organ of motor coordination. It maintains posture, smoothes out and coordinates complex muscular activities such as walking, dancing, balancing)
2. Midbrain
  • Appears as four bumps of the surface of the brainstem. It’s the connecting link between the hindbrain and the forebrain
  • It connects the sensory and motor pathways between the lower and upper portions of the nervous system
  • It has a special role in visual and auditory activities and also controls complex responses such as walking
3. Forebrain
  • Is the most complex and biggest part of thebrain
Parts of the Forebrain
  • Thalamus – serves as the relay station of the brain for incoming and outgoing impulses to the cerebellum. It is also called the major switching point of the brain
  • Hypothalamus – plays an important role in many physiological activities such as sexual behavior, temperature regulation, sleeping, eating, drinking and maintains homeostasis
  • Cerebrum – the seat of consciousness and of the higher mental processes such as language and abstract thinking

Components of the Nervous System - Neurons

Components of the Nervous System

What is Neuron/Nerve Cell

  • The basic structural unit or building block of the nervous system
  • The smallest nerve cell is less than a millimeter in size while the largest may be more than a meter in length
  • Nerve cell holds the secret how the brain works
  • Nerve cell has two specialized functions: [1] to receive signal [2] the longer extension is for transmitting signals
Acethylcholine – is a neurotransmitter or chemical substance that travels across synaptic gap, stimulates the next neuron, carrying the impulse from one neuron to another

Glial cells – are non-neural cells that hold the neurons in place

Myelin Sheath – is the covering on the axons of neurons, which insulate them, making the transmission of impulses faster

Parts of a Neuron

  • Dendrites – receive impulses and carry them toward the cell bodies. These are short branches of fibers branching out like roots from the cell body
  • Axon – carries impulses away from the cell body toward other neurons. These are the longer branches / fibers at the end of a cell body
  • Synaptic Terminals / End Brushes – are fine collaterals at the end of the axon which have small swellings. It does not actually touch the neuron it stimulates. It has a slight space or synaptic gap between the synaptic terminal and the dendrites of the receiving neuron

Types of Neuron

  • Sensory Neurons /Afferent Neurons – transmit impulses received by the receptors to the CNS.
  • Motor Neurons / Efferent Neurons – carry outgoing signals from the brain to the spinal cord to the muscles and glands
  • Interneurons / connector Neurons / Association Neurons – connect neurons between sensory and motor neurons. These also receive signals from the sensory neurons and send impulses to the other neuron. These are found in the brain, eyes and spinal cord only.