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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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Peripheral Nervous System includes all nerve fibers and nerve cells not found in the CNS (spinal and cranial nerves). It conveys sensory information to and from the CNS to the muscles and glands.
Two main divisions of Peripheral Nervous System 1. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
Somatic Nervous System is composed of 43 major pairs of nerves, which includes all the sensory systems and the motor nerves that activates the skeletal muscles responsible for movements. It receives sensory information from the sensory organs and controls the movements of the skeletal muscles. It comprises all voluntary and conscious movements.Cranial nerves (12 pairs) serve the sensory and motor functions of the head and neck region.Spinal nerves (31 pairs) serves the chest, trunk and extremities. Spinal nerves have sensory nevers that give rise to skin sensations and motor nerves involved in the movements of arms, legs, and portions of the trunk. (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygcal)2. Au…

Biology: Cortical Areas of the Brain

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Visual Area is located at the back of each occipital lobes. It analyzes, integrates, and translates into sight impulses projected from our visual receptors.Auditory Area is located at the surface of the temporal lobe. It is involved in the analysis of complex auditory signals and temporal patterning of sounds.Somesthic/Body Sense Area is located in the parietal lobe. It receives impulses from receptors in the skin, musclesm tendons and joints, thus causing us to experience heat, cold and pressure.Motor Area lies in front of the central fissure. It controls voluntary movements of the body and muscles movementsBroca's Area is located below the motor area. It is also called the speech-motor area. Integrates and coordinates our speech.Association Area connects with the different parts of the brain. It may mediate complex functions associated with memory, perception, judgment and language. It has a special importance in integrating and coordinating thinking and problem solving. What is…

Biology: The Lobes of the Brain

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The lobes of the brain are the parts of the cerebrum.

1. Frontal lobe (front)

In the human brain, the precentral gyrus and the related costical tissue that folds into the central sulcus comprise the primary motor cortex whic controls voluntary movements of specific body parts associated with areas of the gyrus.

2. Occipital lobe (back)

The smalles of four lobes of the brain, the occipital lobe is located in the rearmost portion of the skull. The first functional area is the primary visual cortex. It contains a low-level description of the local orientation, spatial-frequency and color properties within small receptive fields. Primary visual cortex projects to the occipital areas of the ventral stream (visual area 2 and visual area 4) and the occipital areas of the dorsal stream - visual area V3, visual area MT (v5) an visual area DP.

3. Parietal lobe (top)

The parietal lobe integrates sensory information from different modalities, particularly determining spatial sense and navigation. E…

Tip No. 4: Always keep the references of your research

Always make sure to copy the website link or URL of the articles you found on the web.
If its a book, then copy it's title, author, publisher and year of publication.
It is important, especially if you need to find it again.

Tip No. 2: E-mail as an Online Data Storage

Kapag nagre-research through internet [online], mahalagang mayroon ka pinagtataguan ng mga nare-research mo na online din. Therefore I suggest na gumawa ka ng e-mail. This time, you should have realized na hindi lang sa paggawa ng account sa Facebook or Twitter may silbi ang e-mail.

Maaaring mag-upload or mag-save ng mga document files sa e-mail, tulad ng Microsoft Word, Excel or Powerpoint Files. Puwede din mag-upload or mag-save ng images, audio and video files.

Maaari ding isend ang mga files na ito sa ibang may e-mail din. So I suggest na gumawa na kayo ng e-mail. Heto ang mga sites na nag-o-offer ng free e-mail account.

Gmail - E-Mail by Google - http://mail.google.com
YahooMail - E-Mail by Yahoo - http://yahoomail.com

Tip No.1: How to easily memorize names and dates

Ok guys... hindi ninyo kailangan kabisaduhin ang bawat lecture na ipapasulat sa inyo ng inyong teacher... Maniwala kayo o sa hindi, ang tanging sikreto ay ang "maluwag sa loob na pag-unawa" sa tinuro ng teachers ninyo. Sabihin nating may mga taong mahirap talaga makatanda ng maraming detalye, pero di ninyo kailangan mawalan ng pag-asa. Ayaw ninyo ng History dahil napakaraming dates at pangalan ng tao na dapat tandaan? Maaari ninyong gawin ito: gawin ninyong mga tauhan sa isang palabas ang mga dapat tandaang pangalan...at gawin ninyong related sa inyo ang mga detalye tungkol sa kanya...

Halimbawa: Jose Rizal, pinanganak noong June 19, 1861

At ganito ang paraan para tandaan siya:

Ah, pambansang bayani natin, si Jose Rizal, sino ba ang hindi nakakakilala sa kanya? Basta ang alam ko, kaBirthday siya ng crush kong si Lea, June 19 din, tapos parehong 61 ung dulo ng taon kung kelan sila pinanganak ng nanay ko, 1961 kasi ang nanay ko... so malamang 1861 naman si Rizal kasi hindi p…

Science: Relationship between Electricity and Magnetism

Relationship between Electricity and Magnetism

1. When a current passes through a coil of wire, it generates a magnetic field along its axis. This was discovered by Hans Christian Dersted

2. If a loop of wire is moved through a magnetic field, a current is induced in the wire (ex. transformer, generator). Discovered by Michael Faraday

The magnet, in the ancient times, was called lodestone.

Science: Law of Conservation of Charges

Law of Conservation of Charges
By Benjamin Franklin In an isolated system, the total charge is conserved.  Materials can acquire charges when/through:
Friction/rubbing (static electricity) Placed near/on contact with a charged body Induction, that produces a charge when there is a redistribution of charges Ionization, the formation of cation (+) and anion (-)

Literature: Types of Poetry

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Narrative - tells a series of eventsEpic - long, unified narrative peom, story of warrior, king or god in which:protagonist is larger than lifetwo dimensional [the good and the bad]more than human strengthsetting covers up to universemay provide historical fact/placegods/divinities were involvedadventure adheres to central themeMetrical romance - story of knights [example: Beowulf]Metrical TaleBallad - narrative poem meant to be sangLyric - honors its musical originOde - peom of praiseElegy - poem for the deadSonnet - iambic pentameter [14-lined poem]Song - set to musicSimple lyric - poet’s thoughts, emotions and feelings

Science: Biology - Mechanism of Organism Evolution

Mechanism of Organism Evolution
variation and natural selectiongenetic drift (migration) - accidental changes in frequency of genesadaptive radiation - rapid multiplication of related species each with specializationsallopatric speciation - developments of new species as a result of geograpical isolation which prevents interbreedingmutation - alteration or change of DNA

Science: Biology - Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection

Origin of “species” book, all organisms have the tendency to overproduce in reproduction; however, the total population seeme to remain about the approximate number; hence, competition exists; survival of the fittest.
species have the ability to produce large number of offspringsresources of the natural world is limitedorganisms have to competeno two individuals are exactly alikeorganisms that have survived and produced offspring are those that inherited beneficial traits for survival

Science: Biology - Geologic Time Scale by Arthur Holmes 1913

Biology - Geologic Time Scale by Arthur Holmes 1913

CenozoicQuarternary - human civilizationsTertiary - age of mammalsMesozoicCretaceous - last of the dinosaursJurrasic- dinosaurs abundantTriassic - first mamals and dinousaursPaleozoicPermian - expansion of reptilesCarboniferous - age of amphibiansDevonians - age of fishesSilurian - few arthropodsOrdovician - first vertebratesCambriam - marine invertebratesPrecambriamprimitive marine life

Science: Biology - Evidences of Evolution

Fossils - most common fossil impressions left in the sedimentary rocks; fossils may preserve in glaciers[remnants]Structural similaritiesVestigial organs - small and incomplete organs that have no apparent function
[example: coccyx or tails bones of human]Evidences from embryologyGenetics and Biochemistry