Sunday, July 22, 2012

Science: Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds


  • Protein
    • Most abundant organic compound
    • Fundamental structural and functional frameworks of the cell’s protoplasm
    • Kinds:
      • Structural/Fibrous protein – build and repair body cell tissues
    • Globular/Enzymatic protein – biological catalyst in almost every chemical reaction
  • Nucleic acid
    • DNA and RNA
  • Carbohydrates
    • Chief energy source
    • Backbone of molecules
    • When combined with protein, they form glycoproteins and proteoglycans
    • Classifications:
      • Monosaccharide – simple sugar which serves as building blocks for more complex forms like glucose, fructose, galactose
      • Disaccharides – formed by chemical combination of 2 monosaccharides but with removal of water molecules (like maltose, sucrose, lactose)
      • Polysaccharide – series of monosaccharides
        • Starch – serves as units of glucose
        • Glycogen – stored carbohydrates found in animals
        • Cellulose – insoluble carbohydrate; abundant in the tough outer wall of plant cells
        • Chitin – exoskeleton of animals
  • Lipids
    • Fats and oils
    • Served as the highest source of energy
    • Acts as insulator protecting animals from extreme cold
    • Contributes to the cell membrane semi-permeability(as phospholipids)
    • Building blocks for many steroids
    • Classifications:
      • Neutral – major fuels for animals; saturated (cholesterol); unsaturated
      • Phospholipids – biological component in the plasma membrane
      • Sphingolipids – maintain the right shape of organs and tissues
        • Waxes – example: polishers, ointments and lubricants
        • Steroid – complex units of alcohol
        • Cholesterol
        • Sex hormones
        • Bile salt (emulsifier of fats)

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