Sunday, July 22, 2012

Psychology: Sleeping

Sleep Deprivation / Sleep Loss

Sleep Deprivation / Sleep Loss
- Being prevented from getting the desired or needed amounts of sleep
- Typically causes trembling hands, dropping eyelids, inattention, irritability, staring, increase pain sensitivity and general discomfort (Doran, Van Dongen and Dinges, 2001)
- If you lose just one hour of sleep at night, it can affect your mood, memory, ability to pay attention and even your health (Mass, 1999)

Normal range of sleep
- Majority of us sleep on a 7 to 8 hour per night schedule

Sleep hormone
- A sleep-promoting substance found in the brain and spinal cord

Beta Waves
- Small, fast brain waves associated with being awake and alert

Alpha waves
- Large, slow brain waves associated with relaxation and falling asleep; also occur when you are relaxed and allow your thoughts to drift

Non-REM sleep function
- Increases after physical exertion and may help us recover from body fatigue

REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement sleep)
- Day-time stress tends to increase REM sleep
- REM sleep totals only about 90minutes per night
- Time of high emotion
- Heart beats irregularly
- Blood pressure and breathing waver
- Both males and females appear to be sexually aroused – male usually have erection, genital blood flow increases in women – this occurs for all REM sleep (Jouvet, 1999)

REM behavior disorder
- Failure of normal muscle paralysis, leading to violent actions during REM sleep

Hypersomnia
- Excessive daytime sleepiness

Insomnia
- Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep
- also not feeling rested after sleeping

Narcolepsy
- sudden, irresistible, daytime sleep attacks that may last anywhere from few minutes to a half hour
- victims may fall asleep while standing, talking or driving

Psychology: Roles of Genes


The genes uses a chemical alphabet to write instructions for the development of brain and body and the manufacturer or chemicals that affect mental health, learning, emotions, personality traits and everything we do.

What is gene?
  • Chains of chemicals arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder
  • There are about 20,000 to 25,000 genes that contain chemical instructions equal to about 300,000 pages of typed instructions (IHGSC, 2004)
  • The chemical instructions program the development of millions of individual parts into a complex body or brain.

Science: Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds


  • Protein
    • Most abundant organic compound
    • Fundamental structural and functional frameworks of the cell’s protoplasm
    • Kinds:
      • Structural/Fibrous protein – build and repair body cell tissues
    • Globular/Enzymatic protein – biological catalyst in almost every chemical reaction
  • Nucleic acid
    • DNA and RNA
  • Carbohydrates
    • Chief energy source
    • Backbone of molecules
    • When combined with protein, they form glycoproteins and proteoglycans
    • Classifications:
      • Monosaccharide – simple sugar which serves as building blocks for more complex forms like glucose, fructose, galactose
      • Disaccharides – formed by chemical combination of 2 monosaccharides but with removal of water molecules (like maltose, sucrose, lactose)
      • Polysaccharide – series of monosaccharides
        • Starch – serves as units of glucose
        • Glycogen – stored carbohydrates found in animals
        • Cellulose – insoluble carbohydrate; abundant in the tough outer wall of plant cells
        • Chitin – exoskeleton of animals
  • Lipids
    • Fats and oils
    • Served as the highest source of energy
    • Acts as insulator protecting animals from extreme cold
    • Contributes to the cell membrane semi-permeability(as phospholipids)
    • Building blocks for many steroids
    • Classifications:
      • Neutral – major fuels for animals; saturated (cholesterol); unsaturated
      • Phospholipids – biological component in the plasma membrane
      • Sphingolipids – maintain the right shape of organs and tissues
        • Waxes – example: polishers, ointments and lubricants
        • Steroid – complex units of alcohol
        • Cholesterol
        • Sex hormones
        • Bile salt (emulsifier of fats)