Origin and Development of Sociology (Modes of Survival and Production): Evolution of Humanity

Modes of Survival and Production

Modes of Survival and Production

Evolution of Humanity

1. Hunting-Gathering
  • Nomads
  • Hand-to-mouth existence(trial and error)
  • High mortality rate
  • Carnivorous
  • Pre-literate society
  • Myths/animism(worship of nature)
  • Family – clan – band – tribe – community – kingdom
  • Pantheism – statue
  • Mono/polytheism
  • No sense of ownership
  • Sparse (few people)
2. Horticultural
  • Backyard farming/permanent location
  • Omnivorous
  • Government
  • Barter/trade
  • Treasure is based on land
  • Regular population increase
  • Regular eating of meals and festivals
3. Pastoral
  • Animal hearding (livestock)
  • Formation of early kingdoms
  • Fortification(walls)
  • Tax, currency
4. Agricultural
  • Feudalism
  • Usury(province)
  • Satraphy(province)
  • Government absolutely monarchy(Divine Right Theory / God incarnate)
5. Industrial
  • 1776 – 1945
  • Industrial revolution in England
  • Creation of machines
6. Post-Industrial
  • Today, 21st century



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