Showing posts from April, 2011

Theory of the Arts: 4 Stages to Critical Analysis (Criticism)

Theory of the Arts: 4 Stages to Critical Analysis ( Criticism )

Initial Reactioninitial identification to a work of artDescriptionorganization in a work; how principles of art have been used to arrange elements in a work of artInterpretationidentifying meaning; the artist's expression / communication of feelings, moods and ideas in a work of artEvaluationjudgment; assessing the meaning and artistic merit in a work of art

Sociology: McDonaldization of Society

Sociology: McDonaldization of Society

McDonaldization of Society by: George Ritzer (1993)

- the way in which traditional, spontaneous, rule of thumb methods of social organization are replaced by abstract, explicit and carefully calculated rules and procedures

- the process in which the priciples of fast food restaurant are coming  to dominate more and more sectors of society for the rest of the world
- the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life

5 Dominant Themes of Mcdonaldization
Efficiency: choosing of means to reach a specific end rapidly with the least amount of cost or effortCalculability: emphasis onthings that can be calculated and quantified [ quantification: tendency to emphasize quantity rather than quality ]Predictability: rational people need to know what to expect, they wanted to be sure that fun, satisfaction, taste and benefis they receive today will be repeated againIncrease Control: everything is pre-packed, pre-me…

Sociology: Attitude Towards Cultural Variations

Sociology: Attitude Towards Cultural Variations

1. Ethnocentrism
practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culturebased on assumption that one's way of life is superior to all othersforms of ethnocentrism            - positive ethnocentrism: school songs, national anthem, pledge to flags/patriotism
          - negative ethnocentrism: customs, dress, eating habits, religious beliefs is marked differently from those of dominant group members

2. Cultural Relativism
inverse/opposite of Ethnocentrismpractice of judging other cultures by his own context3. Xenocentrism
preference the products, styles, ideas, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own (colonial mentality); Xeno means foreign4. Cultural Shock
when you are confronted with other culture, there is a feeling of anxiety and disorientation5. Cultural Lag
maladaptationmaladjustmentthere is rapid improvement when something was not adjust to it

Sociology: Universal Concept of Suicide

Universal Concept of Suicide

*Based on Imbalanced Integration

1. Egoistic
- too little integrated (selfishness)

2. Altruistic
- too much integrated (selflessness/you die for the sake of)

*Based on Moral Regulation

1. Anomic (anomie – normlessness)
- needs unfulfilled
    -- acute economic anomie – decrease of ability of social institution
    -- chronic economic anomie – industrial goals of wealth does not result in happiness
    -- acute domestic anomie – sudden change in microsocial level
    -- chronic domestic anomie – marriage over regulated the life

Sociology: Six (6) Stages of Economic Development

Six (6) Stages of Economic Development
Primitive CommunalismSlaveryFeudalismCapitalismSocialismCommunism

Sociologists: Famous Names in Sociology

Sociologists: Famous Names in Sociology

Sociology – “socius” meaning “being with others”

Auguste Comte ( 1798 – 1857 )
father of Modern SociologyPositivism3 Stages of HumanityTheological(divine right theory)Metaphysical(philosophies/social contract theory/democracy)Positivism/Science(industrialization)
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
social Darwinism
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
Father of CommunismCommunism ManifestoDas CapitalStages of Economic DevelopmentHarriet Martineau (1802-1876)
translated all Comte’s work to Englishfirst feminist sociologistEmile Durkheim (1858-1920)
social facts, science approach to phenomenasociological method, religion and suicidecohesion(bond), integration(harmony), solidarity(state of being solidly united)Max Weber (1864-1920)
on the spirit of Capitalismprotestant EthicDivision of LaborRationalismBureaucracyTalcott Parsons

Origin and Development of Sociology (Modes of Survival and Production): Evolution of Humanity

Modes of Survival and Production

Evolution of Humanity

1. Hunting-Gathering
NomadsHand-to-mouth existence(trial and error)High mortality rateCarnivorousPre-literate societyMyths/animism(worship of nature)Family – clan – band – tribe – community – kingdomPantheism – statueMono/polytheismNo sense of ownershipSparse (few people)2. Horticultural
Backyard farming/permanent locationOmnivorousGovernmentBarter/tradeTreasure is based on landRegular population increaseRegular eating of meals and festivals3. Pastoral
Animal hearding (livestock)Formation of early kingdomsFortification(walls)Tax, currency4. Agricultural
FeudalismUsury(province)Satraphy(province)Government absolutely monarchy(Divine Right Theory / God incarnate) 5. Industrial
1776 – 1945Industrial revolution in EnglandCreation of machines6. Post-Industrial
Today, 21st century

Advertising: History of Print Media

Advertising: History of Print Media

Registro Mercantil de Manila (1824 – 1833, Phils.) - the first newspaper publication that advertise local products on their papers
- published current prices of commodities

La Esperanza
- featured box announcements; includes auction, lost and found La Illustracion Filipina (1859 – 1860)
- began to featured illustrated ads

El Comercio - box notice, ads with a full illustration

- improved commerce promoted print advertising
- newspapers were sometimes trilingual
- fast transformation

- formal advertising began

There used to be one man advertising - maintain contact with advertisers
- writes advertising copy
- present layout and work
- deliver to publication

Spacemen/Space brokers
- solicitors whom newspapers hired to sell space to clients
- prepare their own layout, copy and artwork
- seek to fulfill quota
- serve the personal taste of their own clients (no artist discretion)
- also sold circulation

Frank J. Heries – Napoleon of Phil. Advert…