Thursday, April 21, 2011

Theory of the Arts: 4 Stages to Critical Analysis (Criticism)

Theory of the Arts: 4 Stages to Critical Analysis (Criticism)


Theory of the Arts: 4 Stages to Critical Analysis ( Criticism )

Initial Reaction
- initial indentification to a work of art

Description
- organization in a work; how principles of art have been used to arrange elements in a work of art

Interpretation
- identifying meaning; the artist's expression / communication of feelings, moods and ideas in a work of art

Evaluation
- judgment; assessing the meaning and artistic merit in a work of art

Sociology: McDonaldization of Society

McDonaldization of Society

Sociology: McDonaldization of Society

McDonaldization of Society by: George Ritzer (1993)

Rationalization
- the way in which traditional, spontaneous, rule of thumb methods of social organization are replaced by abstract, explicit and carefully calculated rules and procedures

Mcdonaldization
- the process in which the priciples of fast food restaurant are coming  to dominate more and more sectors of society for the rest of the world
- the increasing rationalization of the routine tasks of everyday life

5 Dominant Themes of Mcdonaldization
  1. Efficiency: choosing of means to reach a specific end rapidly with the least amount of cost or effort
  2. Calculability: emphasis onthings that can be calculated and quantified [ quantification: tendency to emphasize quantity rather than quality ]
  3. Predictability: rational people need to know what to expect, they wanted to be sure that fun, satisfaction, taste and benefis they receive today will be repeated again
  4. Increase Control: everything is pre-packed, pre-measure, automatically controlled
  5. Substitution of Human for Non-Human Technologies: skill and capabilities of human actor are quickly becoming things of the past, who we are, and how we interact is becoming defined by our dependence upon and subordination for the machine

Sociology: Attitude Towards Cultural Variations

Attitude Towards Cultural Variations

Sociology: Attitude Towards Cultural Variations

1. Ethnocentrism
  • practice of judging all other cultures by one's own culture
  • based on assumption that one's way of life is superior to all others
  • forms of ethnocentrism
           - positive ethnocentrism: school songs, national anthem, pledge to flags/patriotism
          - negative ethnocentrism: customs, dress, eating habits, religious beliefs is marked differently from those of dominant group members

2. Cultural Relativism
  • inverse/opposite of Ethnocentrism
  • practice of judging other cultures by his own context
3. Xenocentrism
  • preference the products, styles, ideas, or ideas of someone else's culture rather than of one's own (colonial mentality); Xeno means foreign
4. Cultural Shock
  • when you are confronted with other culture, there is a feeling of anxiety and disorientation
5. Cultural Lag
  • maladaptation
  • maladjustment
  • there is rapid improvement when something was not adjust to it

Sociology: Universal Concept of Suicide

Universal Concept of Suicide

Universal Concept of Suicide

*Based on Imbalanced Integration

1. Egoistic
- too little integrated (selfishness)

2. Altruistic
- too much integrated (selflessness/you die for the sake of)

*Based on Moral Regulation

1. Anomic (anomie – normlessness)
- needs unfulfilled
    -- acute economic anomie – decrease of ability of social institution
    -- chronic economic anomie – industrial goals of wealth does not result in happiness
    -- acute domestic anomie – sudden change in microsocial level
    -- chronic domestic anomie – marriage over regulated the life

Sociology: Six (6) Stages of Economic Development

Six (6) Stages of Economic Development

Six (6) Stages of Economic Development
  1. Primitive Communalism
  2. Slavery
  3. Feudalism
  4. Capitalism
  5. Socialism
  6. Communism

Sociologists: Famous Names in Sociology

Famous Names in Sociology

Sociologists: Famous Names in Sociology

Sociology – “socius” meaning “being with others”

Auguste Comte ( 1798 – 1857 )
  • father of Modern Sociology
  • Positivism
  • 3 Stages of Humanity
    1. Theological(divine right theory)
    2. Metaphysical(philosophies/social contract theory/democracy)
    3. Positivism/Science(industrialization)

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
  • social Darwinism

Karl Marx (1818-1883)
  • Father of Communism
  • Communism Manifesto
  • Das Capital
  • Stages of Economic Development
Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)
  • translated all Comte’s work to English
  • first feminist sociologist
Emile Durkheim (1858-1920)
  • social facts, science approach to phenomena
  • sociological method, religion and suicide
  • cohesion(bond), integration(harmony), solidarity(state of being solidly united)
Max Weber (1864-1920)
  • on the spirit of Capitalism
  • protestant Ethic
  • Division of Labor
  • Rationalism
  • Bureaucracy
Talcott Parsons
  • Functionalism

Origin and Development of Sociology (Modes of Survival and Production): Evolution of Humanity

Modes of Survival and Production

Modes of Survival and Production

Evolution of Humanity

1. Hunting-Gathering
  • Nomads
  • Hand-to-mouth existence(trial and error)
  • High mortality rate
  • Carnivorous
  • Pre-literate society
  • Myths/animism(worship of nature)
  • Family – clan – band – tribe – community – kingdom
  • Pantheism – statue
  • Mono/polytheism
  • No sense of ownership
  • Sparse (few people)
2. Horticultural
  • Backyard farming/permanent location
  • Omnivorous
  • Government
  • Barter/trade
  • Treasure is based on land
  • Regular population increase
  • Regular eating of meals and festivals
3. Pastoral
  • Animal hearding (livestock)
  • Formation of early kingdoms
  • Fortification(walls)
  • Tax, currency
4. Agricultural
  • Feudalism
  • Usury(province)
  • Satraphy(province)
  • Government absolutely monarchy(Divine Right Theory / God incarnate)
5. Industrial
  • 1776 – 1945
  • Industrial revolution in England
  • Creation of machines
6. Post-Industrial
  • Today, 21st century



Thursday, April 14, 2011

Advertising: History of Print Media

Advertising: History of Print Media

Advertising: History of Print Media

Registro Mercantil de Manila (1824 – 1833, Phils.) - the first newspaper publication that advertise local products on their papers
- published current prices of commodities

La Esperanza
- featured box announcements; includes auction, lost and found La Illustracion Filipina (1859 – 1860)
- began to featured illustrated ads

El Comercio - box notice, ads with a full illustration

1900
- improved commerce promoted print advertising
- newspapers were sometimes trilingual
- fast transformation

1920
- formal advertising began

There used to be one man advertising - maintain contact with advertisers
- writes advertising copy
- present layout and work
- deliver to publication

Spacemen/Space brokers
- solicitors whom newspapers hired to sell space to clients
- prepare their own layout, copy and artwork
- seek to fulfill quota
- serve the personal taste of their own clients (no artist discretion)
- also sold circulation

Frank J. Heries – Napoleon of Phil. Advertising

Manuel Buenaventura – First Filipino Advertising Man

Pioneer Advertising Agencies in the Philippines
- Philippine Agency Service Co.
- Philippine Ads Media Rep.
- Philippine Ad Bureau
- Ros Chanco Ad
- International Advertising Agency
(none of the above survived after the World War II)

Some of the Advertising Agencies in the Philippines after the World War II - J. Walter Thompson
- Grant Advertising
- Ace Compton

Ambitious Advertising Scheme
1. Soap Opera
- Dr. Ramon Sigla
- Gulong ng Palad
- Ilaw ng Tahanan
- Prinsipe Amante
- Aklat ng Pag-ibig (aired daily in radio stations by P&G)

NOTE: I would like to emphasize - I am not claiming that the information above is 100% accurate. it is based on my lecture during college, and I suggest you check other references as well.